S&T Cooperation S&T Cooperation

S&T Cooperation

India-Japan Cooperation in the field of Science & Technology

Indo-Japan S&T cooperation was formalized through Inter-Governmental Agreement signed in 1985 between Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India and Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan.

Indo Japan Joint S&T Committee Co-chaired by Department of Science & Technology (DST) India and Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA), Japan, is the apex body which provides vision and direction to the cooperative S&T activities.

An Implementation Arrangement (IA) between DST & Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology (MEXT) was signed in January 2014 at New Delhi. The two sides have held two Coordination Committee Meetings for S&T Cooperation since then.

The 10th JCM (Science and Technology) virtual meeting was held on 10th November, 2020 to review the ongoing bilateral programmes and to discuss new possibilities for collaboration.

Our bilateral S&T Cooperation also has institutional framework with different Japanese Government Agencies involving value-based partnership on the principles of 'reciprocity and co-funding'. India and Japan also aim at working together in developing STI (Science, Technology & Innovation) Roadmap for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with India as pilot country and Japan being its partner country as a party of the Technology Facilitation Mechanism (TFM) under the UN programme.

DST-Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)

The India-Japan Cooperative Science Programme was initiated in 1993 with the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) being guided by India-Japan Science Council (IJSC). Priority areas of joint project and Joint Workshops includes: Physical and Chemical Systems; Fundamental Science, Engineered Materials Systems; Engineering and Processes, Natural Systems; Biology and Life Sciences, Global Systems; Earth-Space, Marine, and Environment and Mathematics and Computational Science. For the F.Y. 2020-21 research area on COVID-19 related (Preventive Technologies, Artificial Intelligence Applications, Screening and Diagnostic Testing) was included in addition to the existing priority areas. In total JSPS has supported 277 joint projects, 23 new projects initiated, 3100 exchange visits of scientists, 60 joint seminars/workshops, 16 Asian Academic seminars/Japan-India Forum and 19 Raman-Mizushima lectures delivered by eminent Indian and Japanese scientists.

  • DST - JSPS Young Researcher Fellowship Programme: A Letter of Intent (LoI) was signed between Department of Science & Technology (DST) and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) to initiate a reciprocal Fellowship Programme for the young researchers.  The guidelines for the fellowship programme was finalized and the scheme was launched in 2017.
  • India Japan Science Council (IJSC):  For IJSC, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) is the counterpart agency of the DST, Government of India. India Japan Science Council is working for last 21 years and has so far been a very effective vehicle of S&T cooperation between the two countries. It has further promoted and strengthened closer ties between Indian and Japanese scientific communities through joint programmes such as research projects, seminars, visits of scientists, RONPAKU Fellowships and Asia Academic Seminars. Last meeting of the Council was held on 1 March 2019 in Tokyo. Among other activities, 23 new joint research projects were initiated. As a Special Case a new area of collaboration has been added to the existing areas for the F.Y. 2020-21 i.e COVID-19 related (preventive technologies, Artificial Intelligence applications,The list of Council members: Screening and diagnostic testing) and the duration of the projects would be up to two years.
  • Also, the Commemorative bookletRevisiting the 26 years of the Japan-India Science Council” has been published by JSPS highlighting the success achieved under the IJSC and facilitation of scientific exchange and network building between Japanese and Indian researchers under the bilateral co-operation.
  • HOPE Meeting: To foster talented young researchers HOPE Meetings have been organized by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) since 2008. HOPE Meetings give opportunities for excellent doctoral students and young researchers selected from countries in the Asia-Pacific and Africa region to engage in interdisciplinary discussions with Nobel laureates and other distinguished scientists.  The 11th HOPE Meeting was held in the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), Okinawa from 4 to 8 March, 2019 with a focus on physics, chemistry, physiology/medicine and related fields. It was attended by 104 doctoral students and young researchers from 19 Asia-Pacific and African countries including India. From India Eight selected INSPIRE PhD scholars participated in this meeting and interacted with Nobel Laureates.

DST-Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)

A Memorandum of Understanding between Department of Science and Technology, India and with Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan was signed on 8th December 2006. Eighteen joint research projects in the area of Interdisciplinary Information and Communication Technology have been supported. Three projects in the areas of Biomedical Sciences are currently under implementation.

A Letter of Intent on the Strategic International Cooperative Program between Department of Science and Technology of India and the Japan Science and Technology Agency was signed in December 2015. The LoI aims to promote collaborative activities for functional applications of Physical Sciences in Information and Communication Technology (including Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence and Big Data Analysis) between India and Japan. In response to the recent joint call under this LoI, three India-Japan Joint Laboratories in the area of "Architecting Intelligent dependable Cyber Physical System Targeting IoT and Mobile Big Data Analysis", "Security in the Internet of Things Space" and "Data Science-based Farming Support System for Sustainable Crop Production under Climatic Change" have been established in 2016 and a joint mid-term review was held in May, 2019. The five-year joint labs are multi-institutional and interdisciplinary in nature led by IIT-Delhi, IIT-Bombay and IIT-Hyderabad from India and the University of Tokyo and Kyushu University from Japanese side.

For details: https://www.jst.go.jp/inter/english/project/country/india.html  

  • SAKURA Science Programme: JST has initiated a programme to invite high school students from Asian countries to visit Japanese universities and research laboratories and also interact with Nobel laureates. India was included in this programme in 2015. DST and Ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHRD) implement this programme from India. Under the "Japan-Asia Youth Exchange Program in Science" (Sakura Science Plan), 694 students and supervisors visited Japan from April 2018 through March 2019. Till date 2,849 students/undergraduates/researchers including more than 850 high-school students visited Japan for exposure visit. 18 students are selected for participation in the SAKURA Science High school Exchange Program in November 2019. About 210 students  from India participated in the Sakura Science High School Exchange Program in during 2019-20. And a total of 25 young scientists/faculties from IITs/NITs/IISc/JNU/AMITY/DST attended Sakura Science Exchange Programme for Indian Researchers/Administrators from January 27-31, 2020 at Tokyo. The Sakura Science High School Program Online University Visit-TIT was held on December 05, 2020. For details: https://ssp.jst.go.jp/EN/outline/index.html#M2,%20https://ssp.jst.go.jp/EN/jst/online2.html  
  • Asian Science Camp: The Asian Science Camp (ASC) is an annual forum for pre-collegiate and college students which aims at promoting discussion and cooperation among Asian students for the betterment of science in the Asian region. 13th Asian Science Camp was held in China from 28 July- 3 Aug 2019 in partnership with Japan Science & Technology (JST) Agency, in which more than 220 research students from across Asia participated. From India, 20 selected students of INSPIRE awardees and KVPY recipients participated. Several Nobel laureates and eminent scientists participated in this camp as resource persons.
  • Under Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) Program, a project “Smart Cities Development for Emerging Countries by Multimodal Transport System Based on Sensing, Network and Big Data Analysis of Regional Transportation” has been implemented since 2017. (Japan Science and Technology Agency, JST and the Japan International Cooperation Agency, JICA).

CSIR-AIST Collaboration: An MoU between Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), Ministry of Science & Technology, Govt. of India and National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST) of Japan was signed in February 2007 for mutual cooperation in the areas of clean coal technologies, biomass, organic chemical process and life sciences.

CSIR-Hiroshima University Collaboration: MoU between Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), India and Hiroshima University for research partnerships was signed in October 2018. HU-CSIR International Research and Education Hub is established in Hiroshima University in Higashi Hiroshima campus since April 2018. It is reserved space for CSIR executives and researchers who visits Hiroshima University or Japanese research institutes in Japan. This hub promotes the research collaboration under joint labs between laboratories in Hiroshima University and 38 laboratories of CSIR. Also under this broad MoU various joint project activities being done by CSIR-CEERI, CSIR-NAL, CSIR-CMERI and CSIR-NEERI with Hiroshima University in the area of Robotics using technologies such as AI, Control System, and Computer vision for UAV/drone applications.

Cooperation in Life Sciences and Healthcare Sector

  • DBT-AIST Collaboration: Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India has concluded a comprehensive Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST), Japan in February 2007 under the Joint Statement towards India-Japan Strategic and Global Partnership, signed by the Prime Ministers of India and Japan in December 2006. Under this MoU, 8 projects focusing on drugs /therapeutics for diseases like cancer have been supported. 4 projects funded in the area of bio-informatics in collaboration with scientists at CBRC (Computational Biology Research Center), Tokyo include projects on developing software tools to identify and characterise members of olfactory receptors, designing Cyborg lectin for use in targeted drug delivery system in cancer and to identify efflux pump inhibitors for Multidrug Resistant bacteria. Another 4 projects supported in the area of Cell Engineering in collaboration with the Biomedical Research Institute at Tsukuba focus on studies aimed at understanding cancers and novel ways for intervention using Ashwagandha derived phytochemicals.

MoU was renewed for second term (2012-2017) along with an establishment of a joint laboratory DAILAB (DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advance Biomedicine) at Biomedical Research Institute (BRI), Tsukuba campus of AIST, Japan in October 2013. The first International laboratory in Life Sciences & Biotechnology of the two institutions is actively conducting research projects on integrated drug screenings for stress, aging and cancer intervention with prime focus on elucidation of functional mechanisms of selected drugs. Besides, several education and training programs to young researchers from India and other countries. DAICENTER is operating as a virtual institute with 9 SISTERs (Satellite Institutes for Special Training Education and Research) Labs (2 in AIST Japan, 6 in INDIA: Regional Center for Biotechnology, IIT-Delhi, IIT-Guwahati, Sikkim Univ, Manipal Univ. Guru Nanak Dev Univ. and 1 in Sri Lanka (USJP, Colombo).

The MoU for the next five year period was signed during the visit of Prime Minister Abe to India in September 2017. DBT also signed Joint Research Contract with AIST for expansion of DAILAB to DAICENTER in the same visit. DIACENTER expands the scope of the collaboration to focused research activities with several institutions in India and other Asian countries like Sri-Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand. It will focus on connecting academia to industry and network innovation to entrepreneurship, thereby promoting S&T relationship of the two countries. DAILAB has become a role model of India-Japan S&T co-operation.

DAICENTER has excelled in networking programs and preparing for the next phase (DAITECH) to enroll industries to promote Science Innovation and Entrepreneurship. The collaboration has promoted 23 no. of Research Publications and 22 no. of publication involving training components. In addition to research, DAILABs have been involved in training young talents by embarking on a variety of interesting and motivating educational and networking activities. 

For more details: https://unit.aist.go.jp/bmd/en/information/DAICENTER.html

  • DBT-CiRA, Kyoto University Collaboration: Department of Biotechnology (DBT) has implemented the cooperative program with Japan in September, 2017 to accelerate the application of stem cell technology in human disease with four institutions from India participating with the Centre for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Japan, as international partner.The aim of the program is to develop infrastructure and the expertise for India to be a competitive force in the field of regenerative medicine and induced pluripotent stem cell biology. The collaboration  focuses on developing treatments for sickle cell anemia, β- thalassemia and brain disorders and creating haplobank relevant to Indian population.The agreement was an expansion of an existing research agreement between the two nations. This programme has a strong training component in iPSc research. Indian researchers and young faculties are being trained at Center for iPSc research and applications (CiRA) at Kyoto University, Japan.

"CiRA-ADBS training program in generation and maintenance of human induced pluripotent stem cells,” organized by the Accelerating the application of Stem cell technology in Human Diseases (ASHD) program supported by DBT  and The Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Japan. This program held in Japan is part of a series that aims to train the Indian human resource pool working on stem cell technology. It also aims to make a significant contribution to individual researcher’s career growth and to strengthen collaborative ties between these international research institutes. As part of this, every year CiRA invites Indian researchers for a 7-day fully funded training program which features instruction on methods for the generation and propagation of human iPS cells at the laboratories at CiRA. The program has trained 29 participants in the past three years. The CiRA-ADBS training program was held during the month of November 7-13, 2019.

For more details: http://dbtindia.gov.in/schemes-programmes/research-development/medical-biotechnology/stem-cells-regenerative-medicine  & https://www.ncbs.res.in/adbs/blog/indo-japan-collaboration-program-enables-special-training-indian-researchers-ipsc-technology 

  • MoC in the field of Healthcare: An MoC was signed between the Governments of India and Japan on 1st September 2014 followed by a MoU between AIIMS and Osaka University to pursue Research and Academic Cooperation on 13 Oct 2014. Another MoC for Medical Products Regulation between PMDA, Japan and CDSCO, India was signed in December 2015. The 2nd JWG Meeting on Health was held in Tokyo on 26 April, 2017. PMDA, Japan and CDSCO, India organized the 4th India-Japan Medical Products Regulatory Symposium in Tokyo in February 2020 to share the best practices in the regulation of pharmaceuticals and medical devices.

In view of the similarities and synergies between the goals and objectives of India’s AYUSHMAN Bharat Programme and Japan’s AHWIN, both sides concluded a MoC to formalize cooperation under the overall MoC in the field of Healthcare, which was signed during the visit of PM Modi in October 2018 between Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, India and Cabinet Secretariat, Government of Japan and Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan.  Under the MoC, first JCM co-chaired by Hon. Minister of Health, Dr. Harsh Vardhan and Dr. IZUMI Hiroto, Special Advisor to PM Abe was held on 17 October, 2019 which discussed specific projects in the area of tertiary care, hospital infrastructure development, developing medical logistics and promoting healthcare innovation network between India and Japan.

During the visit of PM Modi to Japan in Oct 2018, MOC between Kanagawa Prefecture and Ministry of AYUSH was signed to promote Ayurveda. In pursuance to that AYUSH Seminars with the theme of “Healthy Aging with Ayurveda” were organized in collaboration with MoAYUSH, Kanagawa Prefecture, Kobe City, and Tokyo in December, 2019.

MoC between Shimane University and All-India Institute of Ayurveda (AIIA) was signed for collaboration in the research and academic exchanges in December, 2019. AYUSH delegation visited Tokyo in February 2020 to take part in International Working Group meeting on Oriental Medicine System as a part of the Asia Health and Well-being Initiative of Government of Japan.  On 24 August 2020, Embassy of India, Tokyo organized the webinar on "India-Japan Partnership for Self-reliance in Health care" in partnership with Invest India and Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, GoI.   

Co-operation in Agriculture

  • ICAR-JIRCAS Collaboration: A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS) on 9th February 2018 for comprehensive research collaboration. First meeting was held on 15 June 2018 in Karnal and both sides discussed the cooperation on development of low-cost subsurface drainage and irrigation technology in salt-affected fields for sustainable agricultural production, and development of regionally-adopted salt-tolerant crop. JIRCAS has accordingly commenced the collaboration on soil salinity mitigation and crop improvement for salinity tolerance with Central Soil Salinity Research Institute(CSSRI) and Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) which are both under ICAR (India).  Under the joint research collaboration development of salt tolerant soybeans is being pursued. The hybridization crosses between the Indian soybean varieties, SL 958 and SL 955, and the salt tolerant lines, FH-92-1 and FH-92-3, which harbors the salt tolerance gene Ncl has been achieved. A hybridization cross was also made between Pusa9712 and FT-Abyara, which shows salt tolerance at growth stages other than germination stage, for developing soybean variety with salt tolerance in all growth stages. DNA marker assisted selection were carried out for selection the breeding lines having the Ncl gene. 

For details :  https://www.jircas.go.jp/en/reports/2017/r20180227-03 

An MoU between Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and the Faculty and Graduate School of Agriculture (GSAKU), Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan has been signed in December, 2020 for co-operation in Agricultural Research and technology development and application, agricultural education, for sustainable agriculture and agri-based rural development .

Co-operation in Environment:

 

The Ministry of the Environment, Japan and the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MEFCC) of the Republic of India organized the Japan-India Senior Officials Meeting on the Environmental Cooperation in April 2018 in Delhi, India. At the meeting, both countries agreed to organize dialogues on environmental issues and continue discussion on environmental issues such as solid waste management, climate change, and air pollution. Based on the discussion, MOEJ and MEFCC signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in October 2018 during a visit to Japan by H.E. Mr Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India.

For details : https://www.env.go.jp/earth/coop/coop/english/dialogue/japan_india.html 

  • MAFF-MoAFW Collaboration: MOC was signed between Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) GOI and Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare (MoAFW) GOJ on 11 November 2016 when PM Modi visited Japan. The 1st Joint Working Group (JWG) was held on 6 November 2017 after the World Food India (WFI) 2017. The three identified areas of cooperation include Agricultural productivity, Food processing and Fisheries. MAFF and MoAFW also discussed to set up Indo-Japan Agricultural Center of Excellence where Japanese technologies are showcased, spread, and products made with these technologies are sold.
  • MAFF-MoEF&CC Collaboration: MOC between Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, (MAFF) Govt of India and Ministry of Environment, Forestry and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) Govt of Japan was signed on 11 December 2015. The seven areas of cooperation under this MOC include Human resource development and institutional exchange between training institutes, sustainable forest management, enhancement of forest conservation and forest disaster prevention, conservation of biodiversity, effective utilization of forest resources, enhancement of relevant policies on forests, forestry and technologies and Research and development in forestry sector. During the 3rd JWG on 23 July 2018 “Roadmap for India-Japan forest and forestry cooperation” from 2018 to 2022 was agreed upon.
  • The 2nd India-Japan Government-Private Workshop for Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency was held in May 2018 for implementing the India-Japan Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Cooperation Plan. During the visit of PM Modi to Japan in October 2018, both sides signed MOC on Environmental Cooperation focusing on areas of Pollution Control, Waste Management, Environmental Technologies and Climate Change etc. Clean Air Asia and IBAQ held a consultation meeting in Nagpur in June, 2019 for development of future cooperation. Blue Sky Initiatives" team had done a presentation in the Stakeholder Consultation for environmental consultation meeting held as part of ‘Nagpur Air Action Plan’. MoEFCC, GOI delegation participated for the 1st review meeting of the JWG on Forestry from 27-29 May, 2019 in Japan.
  • Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) invited 15 senior officials from Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) and State Forest Departments who have been involved in JICA-assisted forestry projects to visit Japan from January 20 to January 28, 2020. The second batch of a three-year country focused training program on Sustainable Forest Management and Integrated watershed management that targets mid-senior level officials in MoEFCC and state forest departments. The program aims to enhance the capacities of key officials of MOEFCC and state forest departments on sustainable forest management, livelihood interventions, biodiversity conservation and technology based monitoring. The program will help officials in understanding approaches and methodologies of forest planning system in Japan, observe the initiatives/programs in Tokyo, Tsukuba and Kyoto and help in exchanging ideas around the forest management in India and Japan. JICA has assisted 27 projects and 2 technical cooperation projects in 14 states for the forestry sector in India (Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Nagaland, Odisha, Sikkim, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Tripura).

Cooperation in Nuclear Science and Technology: The first joint committee meeting was held in New Delhi in September 1986 based on the science and technology cooperation agreement with India concluded in August 1985. MoU between Indian Nuclear Society (INS) and Japan Atomic Energy Society (JAES) was signed in September 2013 in Tokyo to promote peaceful uses of nuclear science & technology. On February 21st, 2020, the meeting on Japan-India civil nuclear cooperation was held in Tokyo, Japan. Representatives of the Government of Japan including Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and other representatives from industry attended the working group from the Japanese side. The Indian side was represented by representatives of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and other relevant representatives. The meeting was held in pursuance of the Japan-India joint statement signed at  the Japan-India Summit meeting in September, 2017. The strengthening of bilateral cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy was discussed in the meeting.

For details : https://www.mofa.go.jp/press/release/press4e_002521.html 

  • Indian Beam Line at KEK, Tsukuba: The Indian Beam Line project was initiated at the Photon Factory at KEK (The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), Tsukuba, Japan to develop science collaboration in the area of advanced materials research. The first Indian Beamline was established by the DST in 2010. The project was completed in March 2015.
  • MEXT and DST agreed to support the second phase of the Beamline for a further 5 years. Accordingly, an MoU between KEK and DST was extended in June 2015 to continue the second phase of Indian beam line at Photon Factory, KEK, Tsukuba for R&D in the area of advanced materials research. A total of 186 Indian scientists have carried out 77 experiments using 389 days of beam time, leading to new knowledge creation and publication of research papers in international journals. As per agreement, 50% time of Indian beam line can be now used by International users of Photon Factory (PF) and 50% time will be reserved for Indian scientists.
  • India is also playing a key role in the Belle II distributed GRID computing with three operational sites in India, namely IIT Guwahati, IIT Hyderabad and TIFR and in the physics program of Belle II. The group is also involved in other detectors related to charged particle identification and various software development. The Belle II India comprises of about 50 members including students, postdoctoral fellows and faculty members from 10 Indian institutes: IISER Mohali, IIT Bhubaneswar, IIT Guwahati, IIT Hyderabad, IITMadras, IMSc, MNIT Jaipur, Panjab Univ., Punjab Agri. Univ., and TIFR. TIFR was particularly responsible for building one of the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) layers. Around 125 researchers and 120 students from 40 institutions across India carried out various experiments using the beamline in the niche area of high-pressure physics of materials with outcome of more than 100 publications.
  • India-Japan Cooperation in the leading edge Accelerator Research toward International Linear Collider (ILC)-(India: IUAC, RRCAT, IITB, IITH, IITR, BHU,VECC and others - Japan: KEK,SOKENDAI and Japanese Universities) involves education and training of young scientists in India in the field of Superconducting RF cavity and cryogenic engineering, and beam handling technology; 9 PhD degrees awarded, through the above studies in the course of the Graduate University of Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI) at KEK; Indian Particle accelerator schools organized at various Institutes such as IITB, IUAC, IITR, IITH and VECC from 2008, with KEK staff members contributing as lecturers every year.
  • MoU between DAE and KEK: A memorandum of understanding was signed, in Feb 2012, between the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and KEK to establish collaborative activities, and to focus on developments in the field of particle physics through KEK’s Belle-II experiment, detector research and development projects, synchrotron science, and accelerator science. The MoU facilitates collaboration for R&D with DAE institutions viz. Rajaramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata and Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), Mumbai on various aspects of accelerator research.

Cooperation in Earth and Marine Sciences & Technology

  • MoES & JAMSTEC Collaboration: A Memorandum of Cooperation on mutual cooperation in Marine and Earth Science and Technology was signed in November, 2016 between the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) and the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), during the visit of PM Modi to Japan. The MOU aims to establish and promote cooperation in the field of marine and earth science and technology, based on mutual equality and benefits through joint surveys, cruises, and R&D activities etc. MoES and JAMSTEC have identified 3 joint-projects in areas of climate modeling for monsoon prediction, deep-sea exploration and earthquake and tsunami warning research in the Andaman sea in July 2018. The collaboration has supported 3 no.s of publications, 3 workshops, 4 exchange visits so far.
  • MoC between National Center for Polar & Ocean Research (NCPOR) and National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR): MoU between National Center for Polar and Ocean Research (RCPOR), India  and National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR), Japan was signed on 29th October, 2018. Under the MoC  a Japanese delegation from NIPR visited NCPOR in March 2019 to discuss future research collaborations. In September 2019 Indian Arctic Expedition team attended NIPR Japan Workshop held at NyAlesund organised by NIPR. Also, the Indian team attended the Tenth Symposium on Polar Science hosted by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR), Tokyo, Japan, held during December 3-5, 2019. An Indo-Japanese project was initiated during F.Y.2019 to reconstruct past-climate(as part of the MoU signed in October between India and Japan signed on 29th October, 2018), relative sea-level changes and ice-sheet dynamics from the lake sediments of Schirmacher Oasis (SO), Central Dronning Maud Land. As part of this project, over 15 sediment cores from various lakes of SO were retrieved by the team ranging from 1 m to 8 m. The latter being the longest sediment core retrieved from an epi-shelf lake from Antarctica and the first from SO.
  • Cooperation between DGH and JOGMEC: An MOU was signed between Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) & Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) on 16th February 2007 for collaboration on the research and development of the technologies pertaining to Gas hydrate. Initially, the same was valid for 5 years i.e. till 15th February 2012. The first extension was done for three years till 2015 and automatic extension of one year till 2016.The second extension was done for three years till 15th February 2019 with one year automatic extension till 15th February, 2020. Currently third extension was done for three years till 15th February 2023 with one year automatic extension, if required, till 15th February, 2024.

Co-operation in Space Science and Technology

Japan Space Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) Collaboration dates back to 1960s, since the establishment of Thumba Equatorial Rocket Station at Thumba (Thiruvananthapuram). Scientists from Japan, especially those from Nagoya University have successfully used ISRO facilities at Thumba and Balloon facility at Hyderabad for X-ray, gamma-ray and infrared observation of the universe.

  • An "Arrangement concerning the considerations of potential future cooperation in field of outer space" was signed in October, 2005 between the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Subsequently both agencies have signed cooperative documents addressing lunar exploration, satellite navigation, X-ray astronomy and Asia Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APSRAF). ISRO and JAXA signed an Memorandum of Understanding to pursue future cooperative activities in the use and exploration of outer space exclusively for peaceful purposes on 11 November 2016. An implementation arrangement between ISRO and JAXA concerning collaboration activities on the radio occultation (a remote sensing technique used for measuring the physical properties of a planetary system) experiment in JAXA's Venus orbiter mission Akatsuki (Planet-C) was signed on 20 January 2017.
  • ISRO and JAXA signed an Implementation Arrangement (IA) concerning Pre-Phase A Study and Phase A Study of Joint Lunar Polar Exploration Mission in December 2017, and successfully completed the feasibility study report in March 2018. ISRO and JAXA signed an Implementation Arrangement (IA) concerning cooperation on validations, improvement, and applications of rainfall products using satellite images and ground measurements in June 2018. Both sides are in the process to finalize the Implementation Arrangement concerning collaborative activities on SAFE Agromet Project on developing ‘Agromet” product using satellite based meteorological data distributed through India (ISRO/MOSDAC) and JAPAN (JAXA/JASMIN) to integrate solar radiance, rainfall, land surface temperature, soil moisture and NDVI.
  • The First Meeting of the Japan-India Space Dialogue was held in Delhi on March 8, 2019. This Dialogue was held following the decision at the Japan-India Summit Meeting in October 2018 to launch an annual space dialogue for enhancing bilateral cooperation in outer space. The 3rd ISRO – JAXA Joint Working Group (JWG) meeting held on February 25, 2019 at ISRO HQ, Bangalore. Both sides discussed the ongoing cooperative activities and generated action items to enhance the cooperation. ISRO and JAXA had a bilateral meeting on the sidelines of IAC 2019 during October 2019 at Washington DC, USA. The ongoing areas of cooperation were discussed briefly.
  • JAXA and ISRO will work together in the field of disaster mitigation through the Sentinel Asia project under the framework of the Asia Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF). The 26th APRSAF concluded in Nagoya (Japan) under the theme “ Advancing Diverse Links Toward a New Space Era” , co-organized by MEXT and JAXA which had the participation from ISRO.
  • Earth Observation: ISRO and JAXA signed an Implementing Arrangement (IA) on June 16, 2018 for collaborative activities on Improved Rainfall Products using Satellite Images and Ground Measurements including generation of Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) in the Asian region. ISRO and JAXA signed the IA on “Collaborative activities on APRSAF/SAFE Agromet project” during the APRSAF 26 at Japan in November, 2019.
  • ISRO and JAXA is in discussions to conclude an IA for deriving new data products using Indian and Japan meteorological satellite data to be integrated with solar radiance, rainfall, land surface temperature, soil moisture and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). 
  • Lunar exploration: ISRO and JAXA are jointly studying the feasibility for a lunar polar exploration mission since Dec 2017.  The mission consists of a Lander and Rover which will soft-land close to the South Pole and aims to characterize the volatiles and its composition. The samples will be analysed by ISRO and JAXA instruments. Joint Mission Definition Review (JMDR) was successfully conducted and three working groups (WG-1: Landing site and Payload optimization; WG-2: Mission profile design; WG-3: Ground Segment & Communication) are constituted with members from both sides. Joint System Requirements Review (JSRR) meeting could not be held due to the current pandemic situation.
  • The working group-1 activity on Science payloads is progressing well.  ISRO and JAXA had a video meeting on July 16,, 2020 to understand the sample handling mechanism and details of payloads which are focused on in-situ sample analysis and working on the roles and responsibilities of two joint payloads i.e Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Near IR (NIR) Spectrometer. The validity of this IA was extended till December 31, 2020. The Lunar Phase-A report is scheduled to be completed jointly by September, 2020.
  • Space Science and Planetary Exploration: India and Japan are pursuing space science and exploration by sharing their resources. JAXA has requested for Indian Deep Space Navigation (IDSN) antenna support for tracking its Akatsuki mission (to Venus) and to conduct joint studies on radio occultation on Venus atmosphere. As a follow-up, ‘Implementation Arrangement (IA) concerning collaborative activities on the radio occultation experiment in JAXA’s Venus orbiter mission Akatsuki (Planet-C)’ was signed in January 2017. Till July 2020, ISRO’s IDSN conducted 11 radio occultation measurements (2019: 7) and 3 experiments are scheduled for August 2020. The validity of this IA was extended by four years; i.e. up to 2023.
  • ISRO has launched five satellites from Japan (CUTE-1.7, SEEDS (2008), PROITERES (2012) , CE-SAT-1 (2017) and QPS-SAR (2019) as co-passengers in Polar Satellite Launch Vehicles (PSLV) on commercial mode.

Collaboration on STI-SDGs

Both countries will be working together in developing STI (Science, Technology & Innovation) Roadmap for SDGs with India as pilot country and Japan being partner country as a part of the Technology Facilitation Mechanism (TFM) under the UN programme. The Office of the Principal Scientific Adviser (PSA) and RIS jointly with the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan organized a virtual workshop on “Developing STI Partnerships for Sustainable Development: Accelerating International co-operationand actions through global pilot programme on STI for SDGs roadmaps” on 23 June, 2020 and on June 29, 2020. The workshop focus was on specific areas for SDGs, viz. Agriculture, Health, Water and Energy (SDG 2, 3, 6 and 7).

Other collaborations

In addition to the above S&T collaborations between India and Japan, several institutional cooperation mechanisms exist under various other Ministries.

December 2020