Bilateral Brief Bilateral Brief

Bilateral Brief

India-Japan Bilateral Relations

          India and Japan share ‘Special Strategic and Global Partnership’. Friendship between the two countries has a long history rooted in spiritual affinity and strong cultural and civilizational ties. India’s earliest documented direct contact with Japan was with the Todaiji Temple in Nara, where the consecration or eye-opening of the towering statue of Lord Buddha was performed by an Indian monk Bodhisena in 752 AD. In contemporary times, prominent Indians associated with Japan were Swami Vivekananda, Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore, entrepreneur JRD Tata, freedom fighter Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and Justice Radha Binod Pal.  The sole dissenting voice of Justice Radha Binod Pal at the War Crimes Tribunal struck a deep chord among the Japanese public, that continues to reverberate to this day. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru donated an Indian elephant to the Ueno Zoo in Tokyo in 1949 which was greatly appreciated by the Japanese people. The Japan-India Association set up in 1903 is the oldest international friendship body in Japan.

2. After World War-II, India did not attend the San Francisco Conference but decided to conclude a separate Peace Treaty with Japan on 28 April 1952, marking the beginning of diplomatic relations. Since then, the relations have matured over the years to cover a wide range of areas of cooperation including political, defense and security, economic, science and technology, education, cultural and people to people exchange. There is growing strategic convergence between the two countries. There is synergy between India's Act-East Policy, Indo-Pacific vision based on the principle of SAGAR, and Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative (IPOI) on one hand, and Japan’s Free and Open Indo-Pacific Vision on the other. Japan has agreed to lead cooperation on the Trade, Connectivity, and Maritime Transport pillar of IPOI. Japan has also joined India led initiatives such as International Solar Alliance (ISA), Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) and Leadership Group for Industry Transition (LeadIT). India and Japan are also cooperating under Japan-Australia-India-U.S. Quad framework and India-Japan-Australia Supply Chain Resilience Initiative (SCRI).

Summit and other high level political engagement

3. In the first decade after diplomatic ties were established, several high-level exchanges took place, including visits to India by Japanese PM KISHI Nobusuke, Crown Prince AKIHITO and Crown Princess Michiko, and visits to Japan by PM Jawaharlal Nehru and President Rajendra Prasad. India-Japan relations were elevated to ‘Global Partnership’ in 2000, Strategic and Global Partnership’ in 2006, and ‘Special Strategic and Global Partnership’ in 2014. Regular annual summits have been held between India and Japan since. The year 2013 was a monumental year that saw the first ever visit of Emperor AKIHITO and Empress MICHIKO to India. Then PM ABE Shinzo, during his visit to India in 2007 delivered the famous "The Confluence of Two Seas" speech in the Indian parliament and participated in Republic Day celebrations as Chief Guest in 2014. He was conferred with Padma Vibhushan, India’s second-highest civilian honor in 2021. President Ram Nath Kovind visited Japan in October 2019 to attend the Enthronement Ceremony of the Emperor of Japan, His Majesty NARUHITO.

4. On 19-20 March 2022, PM Kishida made an official visit to India to hold the 14th India-Japan Annual Summit. Both sides agreed on a joint statement titled, "Partnership for a Peaceful, Stable and Prosperous Post-COVID World". At the summit, both leaders noted with appreciation that since elevation of ties to a Special Strategic and Global Partnership, there had been significant growth in economic cooperation and expressed their shared intention to realize JPY 5 trillion (approx USD 42 billion) of public and private investment and financing from Japan to India in the next five years. They also welcomed the formulation of a Roadmap under the IJICP and the launch of the Japan-India Clean Energy Partnership (CEP), signed the exchange of notes concerning seven yen loan projects in which Japan will provide over 300 billion yen ($2.7 billion) in total. PM Kishida and PM Modi also met on the sidelines of the 2nd Quad Leader’s Summit held in Tokyo on 24 May 2022. PM Modi visited Japan on 27 September 2022 to participate in State Funeral of former Japanese PM Abe Shinzo Abe, and he also held a meeting with PM Kishida during the visit.

5. PM Kishida visited India between 19 - 23 March 2023 and held a bilateral meeting with PM Modi. PM Kishida also delivered a policy speech titled “the Future of the Indo-Pacific—Japan’s New Plan for a ‘Free and Open Indo-Pacific’ — ‘Together with India, as an Indispensable Partner’ ” at the Indian Council of World Affairs (ICWA). During the visit, both sides renewed Memorandum of Cooperation (MoC) on Japanese Language that was originally signed in 2017, focussing on higher level language learning and signed Exchange of Notes for the 4th tranche instalment of JICA ODA Loan of JPY 300 Billion ( INR 18,000 crores) on Mumbai-Ahmedabad High Speed Railway Project. India and Japan also announced 2023 as "India-Japan Year of Tourism Exchange” with the theme “Connecting Himalayas with Mount Fuji”. Ministry of Environment of Japan and Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change of India, signed an Aide Memoire on the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM).

5. Apart from the annual summits, regular exchanges take place at other high levels including Foreign Minister, Defense Minister, and National Security Adviser (NSA). The 2nd round of 2+2 Ministerial meeting was held in Tokyo on 8 September 2022. Foreign Ministers’ Strategic Dialogue and Defense Ministerial Meeting were also held on the sidelines of 2+2 Ministerial. The latest and 4th round of NSA level dialogue was held in November 2019 in New Delhi. Foreign Office Consultations (FOC) between FS and Senior Deputy Minister Shigeo Yamada were held in December 2022. Environment Ministers of India and Japan met on the on the sidelines of the India-Japan Environment Week held between 12 -13 January 2023 in New Delhi. State Minister YAMADA Kenji attended the G20 Foreign Ministers Meeting that was held between 1-2 March 2023. Foreign Minister Hayashi participated in the QUAD Foreign Ministers Meeting on 03 March 2023 and held a working lunch with EAM on sidelines and also participated in Raisina Dialogue 2023. Minister for Digital Transformation of Japan, KONO Taro visited India between 11-12 March, to hold deliberations with Minister for Electronics & Information Technology on co-operation in emerging technologies.

6. Parliamentary Exchanges: Regular exchanges have been held between parliamentarians. In January 2019, President of House of Councillors Mr. DATE Chuichi led a Parliamentary delegation to India. In March 2019, Rajya Sabha delegation led by Deputy Chairman Shri Harivansh Narayan Singh visited Japan. Lok Sabha Speaker Shri Om Birla visited Japan to participate in the G20 Speakers Summit in November 2019. Under the Distinguished Visitors Programme (DVP), India invites young Japanese parliamentarians from Japan to India to enhance their understanding of India. A 5-member delegation of parliamentarians led by KOIZUMI Shinjiro visited India under DVP in 2018. A delegation of five Parliamentarians from India led by MP Rajdeep Roy visited Japan in September 2022. LDP Policy Chief HAGIUDA Koichi visited India in January 2023. Japanese parliament has Japan India Parliamentary Friendship League (JIPFL) consisting of over 70 members headed by HOSODA Hiroyuki, Speaker of House of Representatives.

7. India-Japan Act East Forum: Established in December 2017, the Act East Forum aims to provide a platform for India-Japan collaboration under the rubric of India’s “Act East Policy” and Japan’s “Vision of a Free and Open Indo-Pacific”. The Forum identifies specific projects for economic modernization of India’s North-East region such as those pertaining to connectivity, developmental infrastructure, industrial linkages as well as people-to-people contacts. The sixth and latest meeting was held on 15 March 2022 in New Delhi. At the meeting, both sides reviewed the progress of ongoing projects in various areas including hydropower, connectivity, forest management, skill development, water supply and sewerage, and Japanese language education, and also exchanged views on possible new areas of cooperation.

8. Civil Nuclear Cooperation: Agreement on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy was signed during the visit of PM Modi to Japan in November 2016. The bill came into force in July 2017 with the completion of internal procedures on both sides. This facilitated participation of Japanese companies in Indian Nuclear Energy sector.

Defense Cooperation

9. India-Japan Defense and Security partnership forms an integral pillar of bilateral ties. India-Japan defense exchanges have gained strength in recent years due to growing convergence on strategic matters and its significance is growing from the common outlook on issues of peace, security and stability of the Indo-Pacific Region. A Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation (JDSC) between India and Japan was signed in 2008, a Memorandum of Defence Cooperation and Exchanges was signed in 2014, Agreement concerning Transfer of Defence Equipment & Technology Cooperation and Agreement concerning Security Measures for Protection of Classified Military information were signed in 2015 and Implementing Arrangement for Deeper Cooperation between Indian Navy and JMSDF was signed in 2018. The Agreement concerning Reciprocal Provision of Supplies and Services between the Self-Defense Forces of Japan and the Indian Armed Forces (RPSS) was signed on 9 September 2020.

10. Defense Ministerial Meeting and other high level exchanges: The first Defense Ministerial Meeting was held in September 2019 in Tokyo. Gen Bipin Rawat, Chief of Army Staff visited Japan on an official visit in December 2019. Gen Yamazaki Koji, Chief of Staff, Joint Staff visited India from 14 to 17 January 2020 to participate in Raisina Dialogue-2020. Adm Yamamura Hiroshi, Chief of Staff, MSDF visited India on an official visit from 10-12 Feb 2020. A 6-member delegation led by Adm Okushima Takahiro, Commandant Japan Coast Guard visited India for the 19th ICG-JCG High Level Meeting held at New Delhi on 14 January 2020 and also witnessed the joint exercises off Chennai held on 16 Jan 2020. Gen Shunji Izutsu, COS, JASDF visited India on an official visit from 09-10 December 2020. Adm Hiroshi Yamamura, COS, JMSDF visited on an official visit India from 25-27 Feb 22. Gen Koji Yamazaki, COS, Joint Staff visited India to participate in the Raisina Dialogue 22 from 25-27 Apr 22. Air Chief Marshal VR Chaudhari, Chief of the Air Staff visited on Japan from 16-20 May 22. The second Defense Ministerial Meeting and the second 2+2 Ministerial meetings were held in September 2022 in Tokyo. The 26th Edition of maritime exercise Malabar-22 culminated in the seas off Japan on 15 November 2022. The first Bilateral Fighter Exercise Veer Guardian was held in Japan in January 2023. The Army to Army exercise; Exercise Dharma Guardian was held in Japan in February 2023 for the first time ever since its inception in 2018. Exercise Shinnyu Maitri was also conducted between the transport wings of IAF and JASDF in March 2023.

Economic and Commercial relations

11. India-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership (CEPA): India-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership (CEPA) came into effect from 1 August 2011. The Agreement is most comprehensive of all such agreements concluded by India and covers not only trade in goods but also services, movement of natural persons, investments, intellectual property rights, custom procedures and other trade related issues. The CEPA envisages abolition of tariffs over 94% of items traded between India and Japan over a period of 10 years. In order to further expand and strengthen the economic and business ties and address the CEPA implementation issues, various Sub-Committees have been established under CEPA in areas of Rules of Origin, Customs Procedures, Technical Regulations, Standards and Conformity Assessment Procedures & SPS Measures, Trade in Services, Improvement of Business Environment, and Movement of Natural Persons &Cooperation.

12. Bilateral Trade: Bilateral trade totaled US$ 20.57 billion during FY 2021-22. Exports from Japan to India during this period were US$ 14.39 billion and imports were US$ 6.18 billion. Japan’s exports to India were 2.35% of India’s total imports and India’s exports to Japan were 1.46% of India’s total exports. India’s primary exports to Japan are petroleum products, Organic chemicals, Electrical machinery and equipment, non-metallic mineral ware, fish & fish preparations, metalliferous ores & scrap, clothing & accessories, iron & steel products, textile yarn, fabrics and machinery etc. India’s primary imports from Japan are machinery, electrical machinery, iron and steel products, plastic materials, non-ferrous metals, parts of motor vehicles etc.

13. A need is being felt to diversify the export basket to Japan and focus on such key products/commodities where benefits under CEPA are provided, in order to substantially enhance India’s exports to Japan and to realize the potential of India-Japan trade relations. Certain focus products for exports that have been identified are marine products, auto components, pharmaceuticals, diamonds/jewelry, textiles/garments, agro & processed food, esp. fresh & processed fruits & vegetables, dairy products, Indian tea, Leather products, plastics etc. Opportunities for greater trade are also opening up in textiles, pharma and food processing sectors if standards and quality expectations are aligned. Japanese economy provides opportunities for a closer partnership between India and Japan, in view of various factors like a shrinking work force, requirement of human resources from overseas, and increased reliance on IT trade.

14. The export-import statistics for the last five years as per India's Ministry of Commerce data bank are as follows:

                                                                                                                         ( US Dollar billion)












2022-23 (Apr-Jan)

India's export to Japan












India's import from Japan

























15. Japan's Investment in India: Japan Bank of International Cooperation (JBIC) Survey Report on Overseas Business Operations by Japanese Manufacturing Companies (Survey of Overseas Direct Investment by Japanese Companies) ranked India a close second to China for Japanese outward FDI in mid-term (3 years). Japanese FDI in India has increased in recent years but it remains small compared to Japan's total outward FDI. Japanese outward FDI to India in 2020-21 and 2021-22 stood at USD 1.95 billion and USD 1.49 billion respectively. Cumulatively, from 2000 until March 2022, the investments to India have been around US$ 36.94 billion ranking Japan fifth among source country for FDI. Japanese FDI into India has mainly been in automobile, electrical equipment, telecommunications, chemical, financial (insurance) and pharmaceutical sectors.

16. Japanese Companies in India: The number of Japanese companies registered in India are 1439 as of June, 2022 with manufacturing firms accounting for half the total, according to the latest joint survey by the Embassy of Japan in India and the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). Similarly, more than 100 Indian companies are working in Japan. These Japanese companies have in all 4,948 business establishments in India. They include liaison and branch offices in India as well as local subsidiaries. India’s Net Foreign Direct Investment in Japan during FY  2020-21 is US$  91 million.

17. Other bilateral mechanisms under economic cooperation include Protocol amending the India-Japan Double Taxation Avoidance Convention (DTAC), Advance Pricing Agreement (APA), Bilateral Dialogue on Financial Markets, India-Japan Industrial Competitiveness Partnership (IJICP), Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH), and High Level Strategic Economic Dialogue.

18. Supply Chain Resilience Initiative (SCRI): The Trade Ministers of India, Japan and Australia formally launched the Supply Chain Resilience initiative in a Trilateral Ministerial Meeting held virtually on 27 April 2021. The initial projects of SCRI identified are - (i) sharing of best practices on supply chain resilience; and (ii) holding investment promotion events and buyer-seller matching events to provide opportunities for stakeholders to explore the possibility of diversification of their supply chains. In continuation, a VC of the Senior Economic Officials Meeting (SEOM) of India, Australia and Japan was held on 14th September, 2021 to discuss matching event and outline of best practices. Government of Japan has announced supply chain diversification program to support Japanese companies to diversify so that over dependence on one geographical area is reduced. The program is to finance diversification to Japan and ASEAN originally.  India has also been added in the 2nd phase. Government of Japan has announced financial assistance to Toyota Tsusho Corporation and Sumida Corporation to diversify in India.

19. Japanese Official Development Assistance (ODA): Japan has been extending bilateral loan and grant assistance to India since 1958. Japan is the largest bilateral donor to India. Japanese ODA supports India’s efforts for accelerated economic development particularly in priority areas like power, transportation, environmental projects and projects related to basic human needs. Japan’s ODA disbursement to India in 2021-22 stood at about JPY 328.223 billion (approx USD 3.28 billion).

20. India-Japan Energy Dialogue was set up in December 2006 to promote cooperation in the energy sector in a comprehensive manner. The dialogue is chaired by Minister of Power and METI Minister. Till date, ten rounds of the meetings have taken place. India-Japan Clean Energy Partnership (CEP) was launched in March 2022.

21. India-Japan Steel Dialogue has been set up as an institutional mechanism to strengthen the relationship and cooperation in steel sector between India and Japan by improving the processes of steel production & product mix and safety of workplace. The Memorandum of Cooperation on Steel sector was signed on December 22, 2020. The first Steel Dialogue under this MoC was held on 14 October 2022.

22. India-Japan Cooperation on Textile: The exchange and signing of Memorandum of Understanding between Textiles Committee, India and M/s Nissenken Quality Evaluation Centre, Japan for improving quality and testing of Indian textiles and clothing for the Japanese market took place virtually on January 27, 2021.

23. India – Japan Industrial Competitiveness Partnership: A Memorandum of Cooperation between the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) on India – Japan Industrial Competitiveness Partnership was signed on November 16, 2021 to jointly explore the possibilities of enhancing India’s industrial competitiveness with a view to enhance the Special Strategic and Global Partnership between the two countries. Under the arrangement, Joint Working Group (JWG)s in different sectors ranging from Textiles and Logistic to Steel and Food Processing have been formed. The 1st meeting of JWG on Textiles was held on October 5, 2020 virtually. The 4th meeting of JWG on Logistics was held on October 17, 2022 in Tokyo. The first India-Japan Steel Dialogue was held on October 14, 2022 in virtual mode. First meeting of the JWG on MSME was virtually on November 07, 2022. The first meeting of the JWG on Industrial Capital Goods was held virtually on December 02, 2023. The second meeting of the Joint Working Group on Food Processing was held in Tokyo on March 07, 2023. A preparatory meeting on JWG on Auto was also held virtually on March 06, 2023. In addition, the 5th meeting of the India-Japan Industrial Competitiveness Partnership was held in Tokyo on 28 February 2023. The meeting was co-chaired by Secretary, DPIIT from India and Vice Minister for International Affairs, METI from Japan.

24. India-Japan Digital Partnership (IJDP) and Start-up Hub: “India-Japan Digital Partnership” (I-JDP), launched in 2018, expanded cooperation under IT sector, focusing more on “Digital ICT Technologies”. First India-Japan Startup Hub in Bangalore has been set up to identify selected Indian start-ups for Japanese market and for potential Japanese investors. In recent years, various activities have been conducted under the Digital Partnership by government agencies and private sectors from India and Japan. The 7th Joint Working Group under India-Japan ICT Comprehensive Cooperation Framework was also held on May 13, 2022 through hybrid mode. The MoU on ICT between India and Japan was signed on January 15, 2021 by Telecom Minister of India and MIC Minister of Japan. An India-Japan Digital Partnership Webinar was held online on February 28, 2022 which included discussions on digital transformation and preparing for post-COVID-19 international competition.

25. Skill Development: Under the India-Japan MoC signed in 2016, Japanese companies have established 22 Japan-India Institute of Manufacturing (JIM) in India and 8 Japanese Endowed Courses (JEC) in Indian Engineering Colleges. India and Japan also cooperate under Technical Intern Training Programme (TITP) and "Specified Skilled Worker" (SSW) initiative of Japan. In January 2022, Japan initiated implementation of language and skill test for ‘nursing care’ and “agriculture” category at a test centre in Gurugram.

Railway Cooperation

26. Mumbai-Ahmedabad High Speed Rail (MAHSR) Project: The first High Speed Rail (HSR) corridor is being implemented from Mumbai to Ahmedabad with technical and financial assistance from Government of Japan. With total twelve stations in the States of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, the corridor has a length of 508.17km. HSR will be operating at a speed of 320 kmph at an elevated track above the ground on a viaduct all along except 26km in Mumbai, which will be underground. The project envisages ‘Make in India’ as well as ‘Capacity Development’ to enable Indian workforce acquire skills relevant for Shinkansen technology. National High Speed Rail Corporation Ltd (NHSRCL) has been modelled as a Special Purpose Vehicle for implementing the project. The project is monitored at the apex-level in the form of Joint Committee Meeting (JCM) co-chaired by Vice-Chairman Niti Aayog, from the Indian side and Special Adviser to Prime Minister of Japan, on the Japanese side. The 13thJCM was held on 29 September 2021. A state-of-the-art High-Speed Rail Training Institute is set up in the campus of National Academy of Indian Railways (NAIR) at Vadodara. The training institute will train approx. 3500 staff in various disciplines including Rolling Stock, civil and track maintenance, signal & telecommunication, station & train crew.

27. Metro Rail Projects: Presently, six Metro Rail projects (Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai) are being implemented with technical and financial support from Government of Japan. JICA has extended ODA to develop these Metro systems and redesign the urban landscape through green transportation systems. Propulsion and control systems are also supplied by Japanese manufacturing companies with their base in India.

28. S&T Cooperation: S&T Cooperation was formalized through an Inter-Governmental Agreement signed in 1985. Recent initiatives include establishment of three India-Japan Joint Laboratories in the area of ICT (AI, IoT and Big Data); Initiation of DST-JSPS Fellowship Programme for young researchers; MoU for third phase of Indian Beam Line at KEK Tsukuba for advanced materials research; Setting up the DBT-AIST International Center for Translational & Environmental Research (DAICENTER) at Tsukuba, Japan and Nine SISTER labs (Satellite International Institutes for Special Training Education and Research) for drug development and therapeutic diseases in India (6), Japan (2) and Sri Lanka (1).

29. Space Cooperation between ISRO & JAXA: ISRO and JAXA have active collaboration in X-ray astronomy, satellite navigation, lunar exploration and Asia Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF). They signed an MoC in November 2016 to pursue future cooperative activities in the use and exploration of outer space exclusively for peaceful purposes under which they signed the Implementation Arrangement (IA) concerning collaborative activities on APRSAF/SAFE Agromet Project in November 2019, on rice crop area and air quality monitoring and on IRNSS Range and Integrity Monitoring Station (IRIMS) in March 2021.

30. Environmental Cooperation: In May 2018, the 2nd Japan-India Government-Private Workshop for Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency was held for implementing the Japan-India Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Cooperation Plan. During the visit of PM Modi to Japan in October 2018, both sides signed MOC on Environmental Cooperation focusing on areas of Pollution Control, Waste Management, Environmental Technologies and Climate Change etc.

31. Education, Cultural and People-to-people Exchanges: Cooperation in the field of education is being conducted through partnerships between education and research institutions, student and teacher exchange, government scholarships, promotion of Japanese language education in India etc. There are 665 academic and research partnerships (including student exchanges) between more than 138 universities/institutes of Japan and around 227 universities/institutions of India. The partnerships range from liberal arts to management & business studies, legal studies, international studies, linguistics, STEM including fast emerging frontier technologies. Apart from academic partnerships, several Indian Institutions have started ‘India-Japan Centre’, for example, IIM Bengaluru India-Japan Study Centre, IIM Nagpur Indo-Japan Research Centre, etc. Similarly, many Japanese Institutions have started research centres/labs in collaboration with India or focus on India, such as ‘International Joint Lab’ to conduct research on modernisation of law in Asia at Osaka University, ‘Indo-Japan Lab’ at Keio University, etc. Student exchange programmes, especially short-term, have enabled Indian students to visit and experience Japan. Similarly, Japanese students have been going to Indian universities for various courses including Hindi Language. Various departments of Buddhist Studies of Japanese Universities also offer papers on Sanskrit, Pali, Indian Buddhism and Indian religions & philosophy as a part of their curriculum. India and Japan jointly host Samvad Conference to discuss the positive influence of traditions of democracy and non violence in the context of future of Asia. Six editions of Samvad Conference have been held since 2015. Last edition was held virtually in 2020. ICCR award for promotion of Buddhism studies was given to Otani Unviersity on March 29, 2022. On 15 July 2021, PM inaugurated the International Cooperation and Convention Centre Rudraksh in Varanasi which was constructed with Japanese grant assistance. DPG and JIIA jointly organized the 5th round of Indo-Pacific Forum, a track 2 dialogue on 23 November 2022. Japan-India Universities Forum meeting was held in January 2023, which brought together the top 10 Universities of India including several IITs and top 12 Universities of Japan to discuss areas of mutual cooperation.

32. India-Japan Forum: The inaugural India-Japan Forum was held on 20 July 2021. The forum saw participation of eminent representatives of both governments, Parliament, industry, think tanks and academia. The Forum was launched with the purpose of bolstering cooperation, leveraging opportunities, exchanging ideas, building mutual trust and developing a joint agenda for future cooperation between India and Japan. The Second India-Japan Forum is scheduled to be held in 2023.

33. Sister-State and Sister-City Cooperation: There are growing links between Japanese prefectures/cities and Indian states/cities. As of now, 7 states and 4 cities/regions from India have partnered with prefectures/cities of Japan through MoUs to cooperate under diverse sectors.

34. Indian Community in Japan: In recent years, there has been a change in the composition of the Indian community with the arrival of many professionals, including IT professionals and engineers. The Nishikasai area in Tokyo is emerging as a “mini-India”. Their growing numbers had prompted the opening of three Indian schools. Over 40,000 Indians live in Japan, of which 282 are students with 30-40% pursuing doctoral courses. Also, there are around 150 professors and 50 research visa holders.

March 2023