Bilateral Brief Bilateral Brief

Bilateral Brief

India-Japan Bilateral Relations

 India and Japan share ‘Special Strategic and Global Partnership’. Friendship between the two countries has a long history rooted in spiritual affinity and strong cultural and civilizational ties. India’s earliest documented direct contact with Japan was with the Todaiji Temple in Nara, where the consecration or eye-opening of the towering statue of Lord Buddha was performed by an Indian monk Bodhisena in 752 AD. In contemporary times, prominent Indians associated with Japan were Swami Vivekananda, Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore, entrepreneur JRD Tata, freedom fighter Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and Justice Radha Binod Pal.  The sole dissenting voice of Justice Radha Binod Pal at the War Crimes Tribunal struck a deep chord among the Japanese public, that continues to reverberate to this day. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru donated an Indian elephant to the Ueno Zoo in Tokyo in 1949 which was greatly appreciated by the Japanese people. The Japan-India Association set up in 1903 is the oldest international friendship body in Japan.

2. After World War-II, India did not attend the San Francisco Conference but decided to conclude a separate Peace Treaty with Japan on 28 April 1952, marking the beginning of diplomatic relations. Since then, the relations have matured over the years to cover a wide range of areas of cooperation including political, defense and security, economic, science and technology, education, cultural and people to people exchange. There is growing strategic convergence between the two countries. There is synergy between India's Act-East Policy, Indo-Pacific vision based on the principle of SAGAR, and Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative (IPOI) on one hand, and Japan’s Free and Open Indo-Pacific Vision on the other. Japan has agreed to lead cooperation on the Trade, Connectivity, and Maritime Transport pillar of IPOI. Japan has also joined India led initiatives such as International Solar Alliance (ISA) and Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI). India and Japan are also cooperating under Japan-Australia-India-U. S. Quad framework and India-Japan-Australia Supply Chain Resilience Initiative (SCRI).

Summit and other high level political engagement

3. In the first decade after diplomatic ties were established, several high-level exchanges took place, including visits to India by Japanese PM KISHI Nobusuke, Crown Prince AKIHITO and Crown Princess Michiko, and visits to Japan by PM Jawaharlal Nehru and President Rajendra Prasad. India-Japan relations were elevated to ‘Global Partnership’ in 2000, Strategic and Global Partnership’ in 2006, and ‘Special Strategic and Global Partnership’ in 2014. Regular annual summits have been held between India and Japan since 2006 (the last summit was held in 2018). The year 2013 was a monumental year that saw the first ever visit of Emperor AKIHITO and Empress MICHIKO to India. Then PM ABE Shinzo, during his visit to India in 2007 delivered the famous "The Confluence of Two Seas" speech in the Indian Parliament, and participated in Republic Day celebrations as Chief Guest in 2014. He was conferred with Padma Vibhushan, India’s second-highest civiliaan honor in 2021. President Ram Nath Kovind visited Japan in October 2019 to attend the Enthronement Ceremony of the Emperor of Japan, His Majesty NARUHITO.

4. PM Modi visited Japan for the 13th Annual Summit on 28-29 October 2018. During the visit, PM Modi was invited to PM Abe’s vacation home in Narusawa, Yamanashi for informal talks and dinner, becoming the first foreign leader to be invited by PM ABE to his vacation home. Japan’s announcement of joining the International Solar Alliance (ISA), Exchange of Notes concerning the provision of seven Yen loan projects including the Project for the Construction of MAHSR, Currency Swap Agreement, India-Japan Digital Partnership and Implementing Arrangement for Deeper Cooperation between Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force and Indian Navy, and MOC on Healthcare, Food Processing Sector were among the 32 MoUs/Agreements signed during the Summit. During the visit, 57 Japanese companies announced to make investment in India and 15 Indian companies announced to make investment in Japan. PM Modi and PM ABE also held a bilateral meeting on the sidelines of G20 Leaders’ Summit at Osaka in June 2019,  Eastern Economic Forum at Vladivostok in September 2019,  East Asia Summit at Bangkok in November 2019.

5. After the appointment of PM KISHIDA Fumio, a telephone talk between him and PM Modi was held on 8 October 2021. On 19-20 March 2022, PM Kishida made an official visit to India to hold the 14th India-Japan Annual Summit. Both sides agreed on a joint statement titled, "Partnership for a Peaceful, Stable and Prosperous Post-COVID World". At the summit, both leaders appreciated the significant progress made in security and defense cooperation and reaffirmed their desire to further deepen it. The Prime Ministers noted with appreciation that since elevation of ties to a Special Strategic and Global Partnership, there had been significant growth in economic cooperation and expressed their shared intention to realize JPY 5 trillion of public and private investment and financing from Japan to India in the next five years, to finance appropriate public and private projects of mutual interest. Both sides welcomed the launch of the Japan-India Clean Energy Partnership (CEP) for cooperation towards achieving sustainable economic growth, addressing climate change and ensuring energy security. Both sides also signed the exchange of notes concerning seven yen loan projects in which Japan will provide over 300 billion yen ($2.7 billion) in total. PM Kishida and PM Modi also met on the sidelines of the 2nd Quad Leader’s Summit held in Tokyo on 24 May 2022. PM Modi attended the State Funeral of former PM Abe on 27 September 2022 held in Tokyo and conveyed condolences to PM Kishida and Mrs. Abe on the occasion.

6. Apart from the annual summits, regular exchanges take place at other high levels including Foreign Minister, Defense Minister, and National Security Adviser (NSA). The latest and 4th round of NSA level dialogue was held in November 2019 in New Delhi. Minister of External Affairs Dr. S. Jaishankar held talks with Foreign Minister of Japan HAYASHI Yoshimasa on 11 February 2022 on the sidelines of Quad Foreign Ministers Meeting. India-Japan 2+2 Ministerial Meeting mechanism was established in 2019 and the first meeting was held on 30 November 2019 in New Delhi. The second 2+2 Ministerial dialogue was held in Tokyo on 8 September 2022. The 14th Foreign Ministers’ Strategic Dialogue and Annual Defense Ministerial Meeting were held on the sidelines on 7 September 2022 in Tokyo.

7. Functional/Working level dialogues: The 3rd round of India-Japan Dialogue on Asia-Africa Growth Corridor was held in Tokyo in August 2017 and the 6th India-Japan Dialogue on Africa was held in New Delhi in June 2017. The 7th round of talks on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament were held in New Delhi in July 2018. The 7th JWG on Counter Terrorism was held in New Delhi on 19 July 2018. After the first round of India-Japan Dialogue on ASEAN held in New Delhi in March 2017, the latest round was held in Delhi in January 2020. The 3rd India-Japan Cyber Dialogue was held in Tokyo on 27 February 2019. The first meeting of the Japan-India Space Dialogue was held in Delhi on 8 March 2019 and second meeting was held in virtual mode on 2 November 2021.The last India-Japan Disarmament Dialogue was held in Tokyo on 23 December 2019. The 6th Maritime Affairs Dialogue was held virtually on 09 September, 2021. The first meeting under India-Japan Steel Dialogue was held on October 14, 2022 in virtual mode. The 4thmeeting of Logistics working group was held on October 17, 2022 in Tokyo.

8. Exchanges: Regular exchanges have been held between parliamentarians since 2016. In January 2019, President of House of Councilors Mr. DATE Chuichi led a Parliamentary delegation to India. In March 2019, Rajya Sabha delegation led by Deputy Chairman Shri Harivansh Narayan Singh visited Japan. Lok Sabha Speaker Shri Om Birla visited Japan to participate in the G20 Speakers Summit in November 2019. Under the Distinguished Visitors Programme (DVP), India invites young Japanese parliamentarians from Japan to India to enhance their understanding of India. A 5-member delegation of parliamentarians led by KOIZUMI Shinjiro visited India under DVP in 2018. Japanese parliament has India-Japan Parliamentary Friendship League (IJPFL) consisting of over 70 members. Previously headed by HOSODA Hiroyuki (then chief of LDP’s largest faction), JIPFL is undergoing restructuring presently. A roundtable between Parliamentarians of India and Japan was organized on 28 April 2022. A delegations of 6 Indian Parliamentarians led by Mr. Rajdeep Roy visited Japan between 12-18 September 2022.

9. Raisina Dialogue: Vice Parliamentary Foreign Minister TAKEI Shunsuke visited India to participate in the Raisina Dialogue in January 2017. SONOURA Kentaro, Special Adviser to PM Abe along with Admiral KAWANO Katsutoshi, Chief of Staff, Joint Staff and Prof. KIKUCHI Tsutomu visited New Delhi to participate in the 3rd Raisina Dialogue in January 2018. Japan’s Chief of Staff’s Admiral Kawano visited New Delhi to participate in the 4th Raisina Dialogue in January 2019 while General YAMAZAKI Kōji, Chief of Staff, Joint Staff of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, participated in the 5th Raisina Dialogue in January 2020. General YAMAZAKI Kōji, Chief of Staff, Joint Staff of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, also participated in the 6th Raisina Dialogue held in hybrid format in April 2021. Invitations for the next round of Raisina Dialogue to be held in March 2022 have been sent to the Japanese side including Japanese Foreign Minister HAYASHI Yoshimasa.

10. India-Japan Act East Forum: MEA and Embassy of Japan in New Delhi established “Japan-India Act East Forum” in December 2017. The Act East Forum aims to provide a platform for India-Japan collaboration under the rubric of India’s “Act East Policy” and Japan’s “Vision of a Free and Open Indo-Pacific”. The Forum identifies specific projects for economic modernization of India’s North-East region such as those pertaining to connectivity, developmental infrastructure, industrial linkages as well as people-to-people contacts. The latest and 5th meeting of the India-Japan Act East Forum was held on 28 January 2021 in New Delhi. The forum reviewed progress of ongoing projects in the North Eastern Region of India in various areas including connectivity, hydro power, sustainable development, harnessing of water resources, and skill development and exchanged views on cooperation in new areas. The sixth joint meeting of the India-Japan Act East Forum (AEF) was held on 15 March 2022 in New Delhi.

11. Civil Nuclear Cooperation: Agreement on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy was signed during the visit of PM Modi to Japan in November 2016. The bill came into force in July 2017 with the completion of internal procedures on both sides. This facilitated participation of Japanese companies in Indian Nuclear Energy sector. Both sides have formed a working group to discuss potential areas of collaboration in the area. The latest meeting on on Japan-India civil nuclear cooperation was held on 21 February 2020 in Tokyo.

Defense Cooperation

12. India-Japan Defense and Security partnership forms an integral pillar of bilateral ties. India-Japan defense exchanges have gained strength in recent years due to growing convergence on strategic matters and its significance is growing from the common outlook on issues of peace, security and stability of the Indo-Pacific Region. A Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation (JDSC) between India and Japan was signed in 2008, a Memorandum of Defense Cooperation and Exchanges was signed in 2014, Agreement concerning Transfer of Defense Equipment & Technology Cooperation and Agreement concerning Security Measures for Protection of Classified Military information were signed in 2015, and Implementing Arrangement for Deeper Cooperation between Indian Navy and JMSDF as signed in 2018. The Agreement Concerning Reciprocal Provision of Supplies and Services between the Self-Defense Forces of Japan and the Indian Armed Forces (so called “ACSA”) was signed on 9 September 2020.

13. Defense Ministerial Meeting and other high level exchanges: The first Defense Ministerial Meeting was held in September 2019 in Tokyo. Gen Bipin Rawat, Chief of Army Staff visited Japan on an official visit in December 2019. Gen Yamazaki Koji, Chief of Staff, Joint Staff visited India from 14 to 17 January 2020 to participate in Raisina Dialogue-2020. Adm Yamamura Hiroshi, Chief of Staff, MSDF visited India on an official visit from 10-12 Feb 2020. A 6-member delegation led by Adm Okushima Takahiro, Commandant Japan Coast Guard visited India for the 19th ICG-JCG High Level Meeting held at New Delhi on 14 January 2020 and also witnessed the joint exercises off Chennai held on 16 Jan 2020. Gen Shunji Izutsu, COS, JASDF visited India on an official visit from 09-10 December 2020. Adm Hiroshi Yamamura, COS, JMSDF visited on an official visit India from 25-27 Feb 22. Gen Koji Yamazaki, COS, Joint Staff visited India to participate in the Raisina Dialogue 22 from 25-27 Apr 22. Air Chief Marshal VR Chaudhari, Chief of the Air Staff visited on Japan from 16-20 May 22. The second Defense Ministerial Meeting was held in September 2022 in Tokyo.

14. Services Exchanges: The Tri-Service Exchanges between Japan and India have been institutionalized completing the triad. The 8th Navy-to-Navy Staff Talks were held in Tokyo from 9-11 July 2019. The 5th Army-to-Army Staff Talks were held in New Delhi from 7-9 February 2019 and 4th Air Force-to-Air Force Staff Talks were held on 05 November 2020. In addition, a large number of Subject Matter Expert Exchanges have been taking place regularly between all three services in consonance with discussion at the respective staff talks. Bilateral air exercise ‘Shinyuu Maitri-18’ was held between Japan Air Self Defense Force (JASDF) and Indian Air Force in December 2018 and October 2019 in India. Indian Navy and JMSDF regularly undertake bilateral exercises such as JIMEX, Bilateral Maritime Exercises and Passage Exercises. In addition, they also participate in various multilateral exercises demonstrating a very high level of inter-operability. JMSDF ship JS Yuudachi and high level delegation also participated for the first time in MILAN 2022 held off Visakhapatnam in February /March 2022. The last edition of Indian Army – JGSDF bilateral exercise Dharma Guardian, was held in Belgaum from 27 Feb to 10 Mar 2022.

15. Defence Equipment and Technology Cooperation (DETC): A decision to establish a Joint Working Group (JWG) on DETC was taken in 2014. Six meetings have been held so far in March 2015, August 2016, September 2017, July 2018, February 2020 and February 2022. The 2nd India-Japan Defense Business Forum was held on the sidelines of Aero India-2019 at Bengaluru on 23 February 2019.

Economic and Commercial relations

16. India-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership (CEPA) came into effect from 1 August 2011. The Agreement covers not only trade in goods but also services, movement of natural persons, investments, intellectual property rights, custom procedures and other trade related issues. It envisages adoption of tariffs over 94% of items traded between India and Japan over a period of 10 years. In order to further expand and strengthen the economic and business ties and address the CEPA implementation issues, various Sub-Committees have been established under CEPA in areas of Rules of Origin, Customs Procedures, Technical Regulations, Standards and Conformity Assessment Procedures & SPS Measures, Trade in Services, Improvement of Business Environment, and Movement of Natural Persons & Cooperation.

17. Bilateral Trade: Bilateral trade totaled US$ 20.57 billion during FY 2021-22. Exports from Japan to India during this period were US$ 14.39 billion and imports were US$ 6.18 billion. Japan’s exports to India were 2.35% of India’s total imports and India’s exports to Japan were 1.46% of India’s total exports. India’s primary exports to Japan are petroleum products, Organic chemicals, Electrical machinery and equipment, non-metallic mineral ware, fish & fish preparations, metalliferous ores & scrap, clothing & accessories, iron & steel products, textile yarn, fabrics and machinery etc. India’s primary imports from Japan are machinery, electrical machinery, iron and steel products, plastic materials, non-ferrous metals, parts of motor vehicles etc.

18. A need is being felt to diversify the export basket to Japan and focus on such key products/commodities where benefits under CEPA are provided, in order to substantially enhance India’s exports to Japan and to realize the potential of India-Japan trade relations. Certain focus products for exports that have been identified are marine products, auto components, pharmaceuticals, diamonds/jewelry, textiles/garments, agro & processed food, esp. fresh & processed fruits & vegetables, dairy products, Indian tea, Leather products, plastics etc. Opportunities for greater trade are also opening up in textiles, pharma and food processing sectors if standards and quality expectations are aligned. Japanese economy provides opportunities for a closer partnership between India and Japan, in view of various factors like a shrinking work force, requirement of human resources from overseas, and increased reliance on IT. A Joint working Group in Textiles has been set up at Director/ DS level to facilitate trade.

19. The export-import statistics for the last five years as per India's Ministry of Commerce data bank are as follows:

( US Dollar bilpon)












India's export to Japan











India's import from Japan












bilateral trade












20. Japan's Investment in India: In FY2020, Japan Bank of International Cooperation (JBIC) Survey Report on Overseas Business Operations by Japanese Manufacturing Companies (Survey of Overseas Direct Investment by Japanese Companies) ranked India a close second to China for Japanese outward FDI in mid-term (3 years). Japanese FDI in India has increased in recent years but it still remains small compared to Japan's total outward FDI. Japanese outward FDI to India in 2019-20 and 2020-21 stood at USD 3.2 billion and USD 1.95 billion respectively. Cumulatively, from 2000 until September 2021, the investments to India have been around US$ 36.25 billion (Source : DPIIT, Government of India), ranking it fifth among source country for FDI. Japanese FDI into India has mainly been in automobile, electrical equipment, telecommunications, chemical, financial (insurance) and pharmaceutical sectors.

21. Japanese Companies in India: The number of Japanese companies registered in India are 1439 as of June, 2022 with manufacturing firms accounting for half the total, according to the latest joint survey by the Embassy of Japan in India and the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO). Similarly, more than 100 Indian companies are working in Japan. India’s Net Foreign Direct Investment in Japan during FY 2020-21 is US$  40.91 million.

22. Other bilateral mechanisms under economic cooperation include Protocol amending the India-Japan Double Taxation Avoidance Convention (DTAC), Advance Pricing Agreement (APA), Bilateral Dialogue on Financial Markets, India-Japan Industrial Competitiveness Partnership (IJICP), Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH), and High Level Strategic Economic Dialogue.

23. Supply Chain Resilience Initiative (SCRI): The Trade Ministers of India, Japan and Australia formally launched the Supply Chain Resilience initiative in a Trilateral Ministerial Meeting held virtually on 27 April 2021. The initial projects of SCRI identified are - (i) sharing of best practices on supply chain resilience; and (ii) holding investment promotion events and buyer-seller matching events to provide opportunities for stakeholders to explore the possibility of diversification of their supply chains. In continuation, a VC of the Senior Economic Officials Meeting (SEOM) of India, Australia and Japan was held on 14th September, 2021 to discuss matching event and outpne of best practices. Government of Japan has announced supply chain diversification program to support Japanese companies to diversify so that over dependence on one geographical area is reduced. The program is to finance diversification to Japan and ASEAN originally.  India has also been added in the 2nd phase. Government of Japan has announced financial assistance to Toyota Tsusho Corporation and Sumida Corporation to diversify in India.

24. Japanese Official Development Assistance (ODA): Japan has been extending bilateral loan and grant assistance to India since 1958. Japan is the largest bilateral donor to India. Japanese ODA supports India’s efforts for accelerated economic development particularly in priority areas like power, transportation, environmental projects and projects related to basic human needs. Japan’s ODA disbursement to India in 2020-21 stood at about JPY 264 billion (approx USD 2.3 billion).

25. Energy Dialogue was set up in December 2006 to promote cooperation in the energy sector in a comprehensive manner. The dialogue is chaired by Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission from the Indian side (now chaired by the Minister of Power) and METI Minister on the Japanese side. Till date, ten rounds of the meetings have taken place. The 10th meeting of the Japan-India Energy Dialogue was held in Delhi on 10 December 2019.

26. India-Japan Steel Dialogue has been set up as an institutional mechanism to strengthen the relationship and cooperation in steel sector between India and Japan by improving the processes of steel production & product mix and safety of work place. The Memorandum of Cooperation on Steel sector was signed on December 22, 2020. The first meeting under India-Japan Steel Dialogue was held on October 14, 2022 in virtual mode.

27. India-Japan Cooperation on Textile: The exchange and signing of Memorandum of Understanding between Textiles Committee, India and M/s Nissenken Quality Evaluation Centre, Japan for improving quality and testing of Indian textiles and clothing for the Japanese market took place virtually on January 27, 2021.

28. Japan-India Fund of Funds: In June 2019 Japan collaborated with India to launch a $187 million fund-of-funds for Indian tech start-ups. Nippon insurance is the Anchor fund and the general partner. Mitsubishi Bank is one of the lead investors. Development Bank of Japan, Nippon Life, Suzuki & other companies are limited partners. Japanese companies have committed USD 120 Million to the fund.

29. India-Japan Postal Cooperation: The 1st India – Japan Postal Service Dialogue was held on December 24, 2020 in virtual platform. The dialogue was based on an MoC in the Postal field between Ministry of Communications in India and Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication of Japan signed in October 2018.  The purpose of the 1st dialogue was to carry forward cooperation in specific areas mutually decided by both sides.

30. India-Japan Digital Partnership (IJDP) and Start-up Hub: “India-Japan Digital Partnership” (I-JDP), launched in 2018, expanded cooperation under IT sector, focusing more on “Digital ICT Technologies”. First India-Japan Start-up Hub in Bangalore has been set up to identify selected Indian start-ups for Japanese market and for potential Japanese investors. In recent years, various activities have been conducted under the Digital Partnership by government agencies and private sectors from India and Japan.

31. Skill Development: Under the India-Japan MoC signed in 2016, Japanese companies have established 19 Japan-India Institute of Manufacturing (JIM) in India and 7 Japanese Endowed Courses (JEC) in Indian Engineering Colleges. India and Japan also cooperate under Technical Intern Training Programme (TITP) and "Specified Skilled Worker" (SSW) initiative of Japan. In January 2022, Japan initiated implementation of language and skill test for ‘nursing care’ category at a test centre in Gurugram.

32. Healthcare Cooperation: Both sides have recognized synergy between India’s AYUSHMAN Bharat Programme and Japan’s AHWIN and have formalized cooperation in areas such as health-care logistics, ICT for tertiary health-care, and human resource development.

33. India-Japan Cooperation on Automotive Industry: A Policy Dialogue on Automotive Industry Cooperation is being explored as an Institutional Mechanism to promote cooperation in the field of Automotive industry between India and Japan through joint activities. The Terms of Reference (ToR) & Memorandum of Cooperation (MoC) for this dialogue are under negotiation.

Railway Cooperation

34. Mumbai-Ahmedabad High Speed Rail (MAHSR) Project: The first High Speed Rail (HSR) corridor is being implemented from Mumbai to Ahmedabad with technical and financial assistance from Government of Japan. With total twelve stations in the States of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Havep, the corridor has a length of 508.17km. HSR will be operating at a speed of 320 kmph at an elevated track above the ground on a viaduct all along except 26km in Mumbai, which will be underground. The project envisages ‘Make in India’ as well as ‘Capacity Development’ to enable Indian workforce acquire skills relevant for Shinkansen technology. National High Speed Rail Corporation Ltd (NHSRCL) has been modeled as a Special Purpose Vehicle for implementing the project. The project is monitored at the apex-level in the form of Joint Committee Meeting (JCM) co-chaired by Vice-Chairman Niti Aayog, from the Indian side and Special Adviser to Prime Minister of Japan, on the Japanese side. The 13th JCM was held on 29 September 2021. A state-of-the-art High-Speed Rail Training Institute is set up in the campus of National Academy of Indian Railways (NAIR) at Vadodara. The training institute will train approx. 3500 staff in various disciplines including Rolling Stock, civil and track maintenance, signal & telecommunication, station & train crew.

35. Metro Rail Projects: Presently, six Metro Rail projects (Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai) are being implemented with technical and financial support from Government of Japan. JICA has extended ODA to develop these Metro systems and redesign the urban landscape through green transportation systems. Propulsion and control systems are also supplied by Japanese manufacturing companies with their base in India.

36. S&T Cooperation: India-Japan S&T cooperation was formalized through an Inter-Governmental Agreement signed in 1985 and bilateral S&T cooperation began in 1993 with the establishment of India-Japan Science Council (IJSC). In 2006, DST initiated a value based partnership on the principles of 'reciprocity and co-funding with the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) through Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT). Since then, several Institutional Agreements/ MoUs in the areas of Pfe Sciences, Material Sciences, High Energy physics, ICT, Biotechnology, Healthcare, Methane Hydrate, Robotics, Alternative Sources of Energy, Earth Sciences, and Peaceful uses of Outer Space have been signed.

37. Space Cooperation between ISRO & JAXA: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and Japan Space Exploration Agency (JAXA) collaboration dates back to 1960s. An "Arrangement for future cooperation in Outer Space" was signed in October 2005. ISRO and JAXA signed an MoU in November 2016 to pursue future cooperative activities in the use and exploration of outer space exclusively for peaceful purposes. Areas of Cooperation include Space Applications (Earth Observation, Satellite-based Communication and Navigation), Exploration and Space Science, Research and Development (Space Systems and Space Technology) and Space Industry Promotion.

38. Environmental Cooperation: In May 2018, the 2nd Japan-India Government-Private Workshop for Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency was held for implementing the Japan-India Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Cooperation Plan. During the visit of PM Modi to Japan in October 2018, both sides signed MOC on Environmental Cooperation focusing on areas of Pollution Control, Waste Management, Environmental Technologies and Climate Change etc. The First India–Japan High Level Policy Dialogue on Environment was held virtually on 7th September 2021 between Mr. Bhupender Yadav, Union Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change of India and Mr. KOIZUMI Shinjiro, Minister of the Environment of Japan. They discussed issues on Air Pollution, Sustainable Technologies and Transports, Cpmate Change, Marine Ptter, Fluorocarbons, COP 26, etc.

39. Education, Cultural and People-to-people Exchanges: Cooperation in the field of education is being implemented through partnership between education and research institutions, student and teacher exchange etc. Japanese language education in India is also expanding. A Memorandum of Cooperation (MoC) in the field of Education was signed in 2015 to encourage the development of contacts and cooperation between the educational institutions of the two countries and possible support for exchange of aspiring students between the two countries. There are over 600 academic and research partnerships (including student exchanges) between more than 70 universities/institutes of Japan and around 105 universities / institutions of India. The partnerships range from liberal arts to management & business studies, legal studies, international studies, linguistics, STEM including fast emerging frontier technologies. Apart from academic partnerships, several Indian Institutions have started “India-Japan Centre”, for example, IIM Bengaluru India-Japan Study Centre, IIM Nagpur Indo-Japan Research Centre, etc. Similarly, many Japanese Institutions have started research centres / lab with collaboration with India or focus on India, such as “International Joint Lab” to conduct research on modernization of law in Asia at Osaka University, Japan, Indo-Japan Lab at Keio University, etc. The students exchange programmes, especially short-term, are enabling a large number of Indian Students to visit and experience Japan. These programmes are either sponsored by the Government of Japan or are the result of “Institutional Partnerships”. As per the Ministry of Justice, Government of Japan, as on June 2021, there were 1302 Indian students studying in Japan (out of these, about 30-40% are doctoral courses students). Also, there are around 252 professors & 144 Research Visa holders. The number of Indian students, at undergraduate, post graduate as well as research level, applying for GoJ’s MEXT scholarships is increasing every year. Similarly, increasing number of Japanese students are going to Indian Universities & institutions to study various courses (long-term & short-term including Hindi Language), either under ICCR, ICCR-AYUSH or other GoI’s Scholarships programme or under Sponsored / Self-financed programmes. Every year few young professionals come to Japan under MEXT’s Young Leaders’ Program (YLP). Under Japan-East Asia Network of Exchange for Students and Youth (JENESYS), every year, Indian students’ delegations have been visiting Japan. An MoU on Cultural Exchange Partnership had expired in 2019. A proposal for Cultural Exchange Partnership for the year 2022-2025 is under consideration with Japan. Sports and Tourism cooperation are also key pillars of people-to-people exchange.

40. India-Japan Forum: The inaugural India-Japan Forum was held on 20 July 2021. The forum saw participation of eminent representatives of both governments, Parliament, industry, think tanks and academia. The Forum was launched with the purpose of bolstering cooperation, leveraging opportunities, exchanging ideas, building mutual trust and developing a joint agenda for future cooperation between India and Japan.

41. Sister-State and Sister-City Cooperation: There are growing links between Japanese prefectures/cities and Indian states/cities. As of now, 7 states and 4 cities/regions from India have partnered with prefectures/cities of Japan through MoUs to cooperate under diverse sectors.

42. Indian Community in Japan: The arrival of Indians in Japan for business and commercial interests began in the 1870s at the two major open ports of Yokohama and Kobe. The old Indian community in Japan focused on trading in gems and jewelry, textiles, commodities and electronics. With close linkages to India as well as connections in Hong Kong and Shanghai, they became major players in trading activities across Asia. In recent years, there has been a change in the composition of the Indian community with the arrival of a large number of professionals, including IT professionals and engineers working for Indian and Japanese firms as well as professionals in management, finance, education, and S&T research. The Nishikasai area in Tokyo is emerging as a “mini-India”. There are three Indian schools in Tokyo and Yokohama. More than 40,000 Indians are currently living in Japan and more than 50 Indian associations are active and contributing to the promotion of India-Japan bilateral relations.